By E. Prichard
Chemists in academia and clarify terminology commonplace in analytical chemistry, supplying additional information than the easy definition yet no longer explaining the best way to make measurements. They contain definitions which are not present to assist readers of older files. Examples are supplied generally. The cross-referencing is considerable. dispensed within the US by means of Springer Verlag.
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Extra resources for Analytical Measurement Terminology: Handbook of Terms Used in Quality Assurance of Analytical Measurement
The authentic spectra are generated on instruments of good, but not necessarily the highest, quality and may, for convenience of publication, be electronically reduced. An expert panel responsible to the competent compendial authority authenticates each spectrum. Authentic IR reference spectra covering the range 2000-500 cm-’ are published in conjunction with monographs for substances of the British Pharmacopoeia (BPC, London). They are also supplied by the European Pharmacopoeia ( E D Q M , Strasbourg) for a more limited number of official substances, where the cost, or toxicity, of a suitable chemical Reference Substance, or restrictions on its supply by post, favour identification by comparison with an official Reference Spectrum.
This is termed the combined standard uncertainty and is made up of all the individual standard uncertainty components. 25 Combined standard uncertainty For quantities that are added together the method of combining the individual standard uncertainty components is to use the root sum of squares: where u,. is the combined standard uncertainty and u l , u2, etc. are the individual standard uncertainties ( N B uncertainties are in the form of a standard deviation). e. x U . U is calculated using the following equation: U=kxu, where k is the coverage factor and 24, is the combined standard uncertainty.
However, the pH can be determined using a pH electrode since the colour of the solution does not affect the H&) ion concentration measurement. Instability means a change in the chemical composition of a substance with time. 12 Instability Metal ions in water samples will often precipitate out if the sample is stored for an appreciable length of time. The sample is unstable. To keep the metal ions in solution the sample can be stabilised by the addition of a small amount of nitric acid at the time of sampling.