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An Introduction to Millikelvin Technology by David S. Betts

By David S. Betts

Betts offers a concise creation to the experimental technicalities of low and ultralow temperature physics examine. He has made broad use of diagrams as aids to realizing, and refers the reader to the pro literature once the extent of the textual content is excessive sufficient. themes lined contain all points of low temperature expertise, starting with an advent to the thermodynamic ideas of refrigeration and thermometry. The textual content additionally covers the homes of fluid 3He/4He combinations, and the entire technique of attaining low temperatures, together with dilution and Pomeranchuk refrigeration and adiabatic nuclear demagnetization.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Millikelvin Technology

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11. 10) 4He is used to transmit pressure from room temperature to the 3 He. The pressure from the 4He expands the upper bellows which forces a contraction of the lower bellows linked by a rigid piston. 5 the two bellows areas are different so as to allow for the fact that 4He has a lower freezing pressure than 3He does.

So P3 + P4 = 11 Pa and P3/P4 = 37. 8 Transport properties Heat flow in solutions is affected by scattering processes involving phonons and rotons and by the heat flush effect which sweeps 3 He atoms along with the heat current to produce a concentration gradient in the liquid. However, at sufficiently low temperature both these effects are unimportant because the numbers of excitations become negligible, and we may apply Fermi gas theory just to the 'gas' of 3 He atoms. If the temperature is also low enough for this 'gas' to be degenerate then we expect that the mean free path varies as (r f /7) 2 , and this leads to a crude prediction that the thermal conductivity should be proportional to X3/T.

The thermodynamic principles of the simple evaporation cryostat or 'pot' are outlined in Chapter 1. 3He is the best choice of simple refrigerant for the attainment of the lowest possible temperatures because it has the highest vapour pressure. The dilution refrigerator (this chapter) and the Pomeranchuk refrigerator (Chapter 4) are sophisticated variants of the general idea. They are more successful, if more elaborate, and also make use of the unusual properties of 3 He. e. the pumped 3He gas is not returned) or 'recirculating'.

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