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An environmental history of Great Britain: from 10,000 years by Ian G Simmons

By Ian G Simmons

It is a historical past of our surroundings in England, Wales, and Scotland, and of the interactions of individuals, position, and nature because the final ice sheet withdrew a few 10000 years in the past. it really is inquisitive about the altering cultures (in the whole anthropological feel) of the peoples inhabiting Britain in addition to with the surroundings they reworked, exploited, abused, and loved.

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Extra info for An environmental history of Great Britain: from 10,000 years ago to the present

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Any accounts of climatic change at the scale of thousands of years must acknowledge that there would sometimes have been years and perhaps decades of what appeared to be atypical climate and weather. Fresh waters The glacial stages of the Pleistocene released large quantities of outwash materials into the drainage. As the climate warms up, the broad and braided river channels choked with sediment give way to deeper and meandering channels with far less silt. Such channels incise themselves into the sands and gravels of the colder phases.

Indeed ‘wake’ is the right word since other systems usually lagged behind the climatic shifts. 9500 BP (7500 bc), both winter and summer temperatures were similar to those of the present day. Mean January temperatures in 10,000 BP were 1°C but in 9000 BP had risen to 5 °C; for July the equivalent figures are 16 °C and 18°C. ) Between 8000 and 4500 BP (6000–2500 bc) there was a ‘climatic optimum’ period or Hypsithermal when temperatures were 1–2°C higher than recently. After 5000 BP there was some falling-off, often in the form of short-lived oscillations, especially after 2500 BP (500 bc), and of the order of 1–2°C in magnitude.

J. C. Walker, Late Quaternary Environmental Change, Harlow: Longman, 1992, p. 13. 30 An Environmental History of Great Britain (in the sixteenth century in Scotland) it could have been a powerful influence on woodland environments. It is not certain that European beaver built dams though they would have felled small trees near water. The main predator on the large herbivores was the wolf (Canis lupus). Gaps of any kind in the deciduous woodlands would have borne populations of birds like the robin (Erithacus rubecula), wren (Troglodytes troglodytes), willow tit (Parus atricapillus) and woodpeckers.

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