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Extra resources for Agricultural Policies in Emerging Economies 2009: Monitoring and Evaluation
SCT includes all market price support and payments based on output – as these forms of support are specific to a particular commodity be definition – as well as any payments provided to single commodities under other categories of support which require commodity production. 3. At present, the WTO provides only minimal disciplines on export restrictions, mainly a notification requirement. Under the current DDA modalities members would be obliged to notify the WTO of new export restrictions or prohibitions within 90 days of their entry into force, with the duration of these measures limited to 12 months, or up to 18 months if affected importing countries were to agree.
2. 9 million hectares in woods and forest. 1787/531831754786 Source: IBGE, 2008; IMF, International Financial Statistics, 2008; MDICALICE, 2008; PNAD, 2008; UN, UN Comtrade Database, 2008; World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2008. 4. 1787/530124026828 AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN EMERGING ECONOMIES 2009: MONITORING AND EVALUATION – ISBN 978-92-64-05927-6 – © OECD 2009 nl y u le O D Br o Main policy objectives and instruments w n Policy developments _it E d it 2. BRAZIL e io s d The principal objectives of agricultural policy, reaffirmed in the latest Pluriannual ea EC Plan (PPA) 2008-11, approved in April 2008, are to promote economic development, se environmental sustainability, employment generation and a more equitable income R O distribution, and reduce regional inequalities.
While prices for energy based inputs have certainly increased, great care needs to be exercised in the delivery of these policies. In particular, it may be sensible to make such increases in subsidies time bound, or closely linked to international prices so that they are reduced if prices come back down. Further, appropriate regulations and extension services need to be provided and enforced to ensure that the increased use of chemical inputs does not lead to further environmental damage. ● Efforts are being made to improve the delivery of agricultural policy in a number of emerging economies, through administrative reform, the rationalisation of policy measures, the establishment of co-ordinated multi-year frameworks, and the introduction of private sector expertise and skills, among other initiatives.