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Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 6 by Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)

By Hayne W. Reese (Ed.)

This quantity, one in a sequence, bargains with the constitution of developmental thought, recursive structures, kid's iconic realism, the position of cognition in figuring out gender results, the advance of processing pace in youth and formative years and extra.

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Witryol pilot failures dating back to 1964 in the investigation of two-choice learning of visually discriminated, planometric patterns. Bisett and Rieber (1966) got the effect, but on a position discrimination reinforced only 33% of the time, and there is the additional possibility adduced from the Ryan and Watson (1968) review that frustrative nonreward may have contributed to the effect. McGrade (1968) and Terrell et al. (1959) not only got the effect, but their studies represent the only published sources on incentive influences on acquisition with children in a between-groups design where qualitatively different reward values, other than obvious polar extremes, yielded significant variance.

Differential occupational preference values in the A terms were assumed to reflect differential incentive magnitudes derived from the boys’ natural history. All the occupational roles were of high frequency on the Thorndike-Lorge scale and were pretested for associative value. After the paired-comparisons test, the 40 boys were divided into two independent groups for the high and low verbal reward conditions applied to the B terms, while each subject served as his own control for the incentive value of the A terms in this mixed 2 x 2 design.

Skill-50% Material; (c) Chance--100% Verbal vs. Chance100% Material; and (d) Chance--100% Verbal vs. Chance-50% Material. In every condition, when the subject approached the verbal in- 22 Sam L. Witryol centive-associated stimulus, he received 100% reinforcement, but in two opposing stimulus conditions, the schedule was only 50% for the material incentive-associated stimulus. Instructions in the Skill conditions emphasized “playing the game well,” while the Chance instructions suggested the game was “a matter of luck”; the child was told he would get a mark or grade at the end of the game.

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