By John Norris
The German 88 mm used to be via a ways the main recognized and flexible artillery weapon of worldwide warfare II. It used to be first used as an anti-aircraft weapon through the Condor Legion throughout the Spanish Civil warfare and observed additional carrier within the German invasions of Poland and France, the place it used to be first utilized in its anti-tank position. This function was once relatively profitable and the 88 turned feared by way of tank crews from North Africa to Russia. except those major roles the 88 mm used to be used because the major weapon on late-war German tanks, as a self-propelled gun, or even as an aerial weapon. This booklet covers a lot of these editions, explaining their layout, improvement and operational use.
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Extra resources for 88 mm FlaK 18/36/37/41 and PaK 43 1936-45 (New Vanguard, Volume 46)
4 , 3 9 Lexington MacArthur, Gen Douglas A. 3 0 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 2 , 4 4 machinery 6, 8, 9 - 1 0 , 1 1 , 12, 14, 16 M a h a n class 7, 8 - 1 1 , 9, 1 0 , 15, 3 6 , 38 Midway, battle of ( 1 9 4 2 ) 3 0 , 3 0 Mine Squadrons (MinRon): M i n R o n 2 0 : 4 2 ; M i n R o n 2 1 : 4 2 , 43 minesweepers, Ellyson class fast (converted destroyers) 42, 43, 44 Mitchell, Brig Gen " B i l l y " 4 mobilization 2 0 - 2 2 modifications 1 9 - 2 0 , 3 8 - 3 9 , 43 Moosbrugger, Cmdr Frederick W. 3 5 , 38 naming of destroyers 4 4 National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) 8, 12 Naval Appropriations Acts: 1932 6 - 7 ; 1 9 3 4 1 0 ; 1 9 3 7 1 5 ; 1 9 3 8 , 1 9 3 9 and 1 9 4 0 18 Neosho 27 New Georgia 3 4 New York Shipbuilding 6 - 7 , 13 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock C o .
The four Gridleys in particular lacked the stability needed to carry any 40mm twins and, after 500,000 miles, Maury's deck had begun to crack. Only 23 prewar destroyers were engaged at Iwo Jima and 29 at Okinawa, where now-Captain Moosbrugger set up a system of radar picket stations to provide early warning of incoming air raids. There, Morris and Shubrick were damaged too severely to be repaired; it was lucky that none of the prewar destroyers was sunk. Meanwhile, at the end of 1944, twelve Gleaves-class 1,630-tonners from DesRons 10, 17, and 18 had been converted as high-speed minesweepers with their main gun batteries reduced to three 5-inch/38s - and sent to Okinawa as Mine Squadron 2 0 .
DesDiv 24 Duncan? Lansdowne, DesDiv 27* Edwards? Frazier? Gansevoort, DesDiv 28 Bailey? ' DesDiv 37 Stevenson, DesDiv 38 Gillespie? ' 2 02 Lardner, Bancroft? Caldwell? 02 Stockton? 0 Thorn? Kalk? Woodwork 2 Meade' S1 0 Laffey? McCalla 2 Coghlan' Turner 2 Welles 2 S q u a d r o n flagship D i v i s i o n flagship 'Benson class G l e a v e s class D 2 *Barton, sunk at Guadalcanal, may have been intended to j o i n this division. September brought a deepening predicament. Ashore, the Marines barely hung on against suicidal ground charges.