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A second mode in the neighborhood, in spite of a slightly higher loss, may have antinodes at the location of the nodes of the first mode. Spatial hole burning results in unwanted multiple frequency operation, especially at high pump laser powers. In addition, incomplete utilization of the gain by the selected longitudinal mode restricts the laser efficiency in single-mode operation. 5%) is introduced for one of the two possible counterpropagating waves. This is achieved by using the Faraday effect in a piece of crystal or glass placed in a magnetic field applied parallel to the direction of the propagating light wave.
4, consists of the longitudinal modes of the resonator separated in frequency space by c/2L (or 2 /2L in wavelength units), where L is the optical length of the cavity. The frequency of the modes is extremely sensitive to external influences. A change in the cavity length by a small as /2 causes the frequency of a mode to be changed by the separation between the modes themselves. While tuning the wavelength of the laser one actually scans the envelope of the etalon-selected spectral profile over the modes, which may themselves also shift due to change in L during tilting of optical elements.
Dye lasers, with broad spectral widths, have played a central role in the development of ultra-short-duration light pulses and investigation of ultrafast processes in nature. Amplification of ultrashort (ȁ100 fs) dye laser pulses in high-energy excimer laser amplifiers, with prior frequency conversion when necessary, has produced few 100 fs pulses with 1 TW (terawatt) to 4 TW output power in the blue UV region (11). Such high-power lasers have opened up a new field of high-intensity laser-matter interaction, with emerging applications in the area of laserinduced fusion technology, compact high-energy electron accelerators, sources of tunable, coherent XUV beams by high-order-harmonic generation, generation of ultrashort Xray sources, and investigation of fundamental processes in nature.